Fasting Kaffarah and Age of fasting

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Question:

Assalam Alaykum,
JazakAllah for below response from Sheikh, may the divine blessings of Allah protect you & Sheikh Shakeeb sb. But it’s not clear in the messge that what should be in place of qadha.
Can person do Sadqa in place of Qadha? And what should be that Sadqa amount or quantity?
Also, what should do to give Kaffarah, do a person need to fast(how many days) or give dates(I heard 60 dates, how many dates) or give meal to poor(How many people, I heard 60 people).
Can you please confirm.
Jk and dua’a

Question:

Assalam Alaykum Sheikh,
What will be the age of boy and girl that it’s mandatory to fast in the month of Ramadan?
If a boy / girl has missed some days of fasting in early years due to any reason except medical, then what is the Kafarah for all those days…
Generally my parent advised that need to give food to two people for each day missed the fast, but they are not 100% sure.
What is the guidance from Prophet Mohammed s.a.w in such situation.
Jk & dua’a

Answer:

Wa alaykum salam.

It is mandatory for Muslims to fast the month of Ramadhan after reaching the age of puberty.
For boys, puberty occurs by ejaculation such as with a wet dream, while for girls it occurs by menstruation. If neither occurs, then at age of fifteen lunar years one is considered to have reached puberty.
[Tahtawi, Hashiyat al-Tahtawi ala Maraqi Falah; Ibn Abidin, Radd al-Muhtar]

Missed fasts must be made up for (qadha).
Kaffarah is only due when one started the day fasting and then breaks fast intentionally without a valid excuse.
والله أعلم

Answered by
Mohammed Shakeeb.

Follow up answer:

Firstly it is important that one understands the following with regards to the fasts of Ramadhan;

What is qadha?
What is fidyah?
What is kaffarah?

1. Qadha means to make up a missed or broken fast by observing that fast at a later date.

2. Fidyah is a compensation that one must pay due to: an inability to fast due to old age; or a continuous sickness that there is no hope of recovery from that prevents one from fasting; or a penalty one must pay due to delaying the qadha of Ramadhan that was due upon one to make up until another Ramadhan comes.

3. Kaffarah is a way of atonement for breaking a fast that one started without a valid excuse, either by sexual intercourse or by eating and drinking.
The atonement for this is to fast sixty days consecutively or if one is physically unable to on the advice of doctors then the atonement would be to feed sixty poor people.

Note: Sometimes the word “kaffarah” is used broadly to mean the fidyah mentioned above in number 2 which is understood from the context.

In the original answer given ie
“Missed fasts must be made up for (qadha),” you should now understand that qadha means the fasts that must be made up outside of Ramadhan by keeping fasts for all the days missed during Ramadhan at a later date.

The scholars are of the view that it is obligatory to make up the days that one does not fast. In fact some of them narrated that there was scholarly consensus on this point.

Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr said:

The ummah is unanimously agreed, and all the scholars narrated, concerning one who does not fast Ramadan deliberately, although he believes that it is obligatory, and he only failed to fast it out of negligence and arrogance, then he repented from that, that he must make up (the days he missed).

End quote from al-Istidhkaar (1/77).

There is a common misunderstanding of many people that one can simply pay fidyah in lieu of every day that was missed and this payment will suffice for each day missed.
This is absolutely wrong and this preconceived notion must be removed from our minds.

The only time that fidyah takes the place of qadha is if one has reached extreme old age or is afflicted with an ongoing sickness in which there is no hope for recovery and making up those missed fasts is no longer possible in both cases. This is agreed upon according to the Hanafi, Shafi’i and Hanbali schools. The Malikis here are even more lenient saying that it is only mustahab (desirable) for one to pay fidyah in this case and not wajib as since they are unable to fast there is no obligation upon them from the outset.

“اتَّفَقَ الْحَنَفِيَّةُ وَالشَّافِعِيَّةُ وَالْحَنَابِلَةُ عَلَى أَنَّهُ يُصَارُ إلَى الْفِدْيَةِ فِي الصِّيَامِ عِنْدَ الْيَأْسِ مِنْ إمْكَانِ قَضَاءِ الأَيَّامِ الَّتِي أَفْطَرَهَا لِشَيْخُوخَةٍ لا يَقْدِرُ مَعَهَا عَلَى الصِّيَامِ , أَوْ مَرَضٍ لا يُرْجَى بُرْؤُهُ , لقوله تعالى : ( وَعَلَى الَّذِينَ يُطِيقُونَهُ فِدْيَةٌ طَعَامُ مِسْكِينٍ ) وَالْمُرَادُ مَنْ يَشُقُّ عَلَيْهِمْ الصِّيَامُ اه
الموسوعة الفقهية (5/117)

قال مالك : ولا أرى ذلك ) الإطعام ( واجبا وأحب إلي أن يفعله [ ص: 284 ] إذا كان قويا ) أي قادرا عليه فإن عجز فلا شيء عليه ، ( فمن فدى ) لتحصيل المستحب ( فإنما يطعم مكان كل يوم مدا بمد النبي
صلى الله عليه وسلم
شرح الزرقاني على موطأ الإمام مالك

So going back to your original question;
“If a boy / girl has missed some days of fasting in early years due to any reason except medical, then what is the Kafarah for all those days?”

According to the Hanafi view one must just do qadha, ie make up every single one of those Ramadhan fasts missed after Ramadhan. There is no extra penalty imposed if one delayed it till the next Ramadhan or even how ever many Ramadhans may have passed although if one dies without making up one’s fasts, without excuse, one will have been sinful. One should therefore make a wasiyah in his will and instruct one’s relatives to arrange for fidyah payments to be given from the discretionary third of one’s wealth upon one’s death for any missed fasts.

The Maliki and Hanbali view is that one must do qadha for missed fasts of Ramadhan and if one delays it until another Ramadhan has come without a valid excuse then they must also pay fidyah ( approximately half a litre of volume of wheat or it’s equivalent in value). The qadha still remains binding on that person and they are not exempted from it inspite of paying the fidyah.

The Shafi’i view is similar to the Malikis and Hanbalis with the addition that fidyah will only be imposed when one delays knowing that delaying qadha without a valid reason is impermissible (sinful). Thereafter for every subsequent Ramadhan that comes after without the qadha being completed an extra fidyah will be imposed on him. So if two Ramadhans have passed, for each day of qadha owing one will have two fidyahs to pay and so on.

قال النووي في المنهاج:
ومن أخر قضاء رمضان مع إمكانه حتى دخل رمضان آخر لزمه مع القضاء لكل يوم مد والأصح تكرره بتكرر السنين اهـ

قال ابن حجر في التحفة:
لو أخره لنسيان أو جهل فلا فدية كما أفهمه كلامهم ومراده الجهل بحرمة التأخير وإن كان مخالطا للعلماء لخفاء ذلك لا بالفدية فلا يعذر بجهله بها

Lastly it is highly recommended when asking a question that you clearly state which school of thought you need the answer for so that answers can become short and precise.
Moving forward it is better for people to state which school they follow rather than ask questions by saying we want the Prophet’s صلى الله عليه و سلم guidance on this issue or we want the answer from Quran and Hadith as the answer will often be lengthy with a variety of opinions as each school is giving their interpretation of the meaning of Quran and Sunnah.
That is why for common people like us we need to follow one school of thought to avoid confusion and also to avoid the dangerous practice of following one’s desires of picking and choosing between schools for the sake of convenience.

I answered this question covering the opinions of all four schools to stress that none of the schools allow fidyah to take the place of qadha as is misunderstood by many.

Allah knows best.

Answered by
Mohammed Shakeeb.

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